The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance


The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance


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The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance is an unprecedented collaborative academic book that will provide policy makers, students and civil society with a highly readable, diverse and informed set of theoretical background material and case studies that illustrate how theories of collective intelligence can be mobilized in practice to develop more effective policies and strengthen democratic frameworks.

Our handbook is edited by Stephen Boucher, Founder of Dreamocracy, Co-founder of Smarter Together, Visiting Professor at Sciences Po, ULB and CIFE, together with Pr. Carina Antonia Hallin of the IT University of Copenhagen and Dr. Lex Paulson of the School of Collective Intelligence.

The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance will:

  • Inspire by showcasing how societal issues can be addressed more effectively
  • Examine critically the potential for new forms of governance to increase the ability of public authorities to harness collective intelligence and thus help public authorities
  • Broaden readers’ understanding of collective intelligence, sharing the latest social science insights and a systematic review of relevant literature
  • Equip readers by providing them with key tips and tools, references to study further and background references, thus helping them tap into collective wisdom in their decision-making process through creative governance practices;
  • Incentivize public servants and others contributing to policy making to think and act in more collaborative ways with citizens, the private sector, academia, CSO’s, and all relevant stakeholders that can contribute to smarter policies;
  • Provide teaching material and opportunities to inspire and train policy makers, civil servants, students, and activists.

We know that, when public actors with a stake in the future of democracy have the right tools, when they learn from past experience, when they are inspired by examples from diverse contexts around the world, and see that collective intelligence can help govern more effectively, they are more willing to take on new challenges, involve a greater diversity of actors, embrace complexity, and be more creative.

The format

The handbook consists of 7 parts, each with an introductory chapter by renowned academics and a total of 36 brief case studies from around the world showcasing for each :

1. A real-life story (recent or not) in which people in leadership positions applied specific collective intelligence methodologies to overcome public challenges. Written in an engaging and journalistic style, it provides key information regarding the players, dynamics, and challenges at play.

2. A theoretical approach: what does social science tell us about the underlying principles at work from a variety of perspectives (social psychology, neuroscience, creativity, management…) ? Key references for further reading and quotes from expert authors are shared. 

3. A “How to” section, explaining what is specific to the context, what methodological lessons can be drawn for replication and providing practical dos & don’ts..

Case studies

  1. Deliberative Policy-making during COVID-19: The case of TaiwanDr. Helen K. Liu and Dr. Tze-Luen Lin, National Taiwan University, Associate Professors
  2. Crowdsourcing a constitution: The world’s first crowdsourced constitution rises from the ashes in IcelandElisa Lironi, ECAS, Senior Manager European Democracy
  3. Collective creativity and political entrepreneurship: The Alternative in Denmark (or why failure is an option)Stephen Boucher, Founder of Dreamocracy, Visiting Professor at Sciences Po, ULB and CIFE and Jeff van Luijk, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, Luxembourg, Officer, with Uffe Elbæk, Frie Gronne, Danish MP
  4. How to facilitate the convergence of conflicting constellations of interests: Germany’s “Agora Energiewende”Dr. Lars Grotewold, Mercator Stiftung, Climate Action Director
  5. How collective political intelligence produced better policy: Political Task Committees in Gentofte, DenmarkPr. Eva Sørensen, Public Administration and Democracy, Roskilde University and Pr. Jacob Torfing, Politics and Institutions, Roskilde University, Research director of the Roskilde School of Governance
  6. From shouting matches to argument maps: An online deliberation experiment in ItalyDr. Mark Klein, MIT, UM6P School of Collective Intelligence, Dr. Paolo Spada, University of Southampton and Lex Paulson, UM6P School of Collective Intelligence
  7. Achieving parity with human moderators: A self-moderating platform for online deliberationJapan, Lodewijk Gelauff, Liubov Nikolenko, Sukolsak Sakshuwong, Pr. James Fishkin, Stanford’s Center for Deliberative Democracy, Director, Pr. Ashish Goel, Pr. Kamesh Munagala, Associate Chair, Computer Science Department and Alice Siu, Deliberative Democracy Lab, Associate Director, Stanford University
  8. When bottom-up and top-down meet: The ADDIS process and the co-creation of the Nigeria Startup BillNigeria, Jon Stever, i4Policy Foundation, Co-founder and Managing Director
  9. Reinventing local government through collective intelligence and artificial intelligence: How a Danish municipality harnesses citizen insights  – Denmark, Dr. Carina Antonia Hallin, Collective Intelligence Research Group, IT University of Copenhagen, Head and Naima Lipka, Copenhagen Business School, Collective Intelligence Unit, Former Research Assistant.
  10. Slowing Down To Better Tackle A Region’s Challenges: Lessons From Co-Intelligence Wallonia – Belgium, Pierre Portevin,, Author, trainer, coach, facilitator
  11. Turning problem makers into creative problem solvers: How New York State creatively shifted the paradigm from managing troubled kids to engaging themUSA, Tim Switalski, Center for Certification in Creativity, M.S., President of Darwin Associates, CREA Conference, Co-founder and Center for Certification in Creativity, Founding partner
  12. Tacit knowledge speaks the language of story: Morocco’s Commission spéciale sur le modèle de développementMorocco, Lex Paulson, UM6P School of Collective Intelligence and Marwane Fachane, Fondation HIBA, Executive Director
  13. Challenging received wisdom and spreading innovation: Lessons from the Youth Justice BoardUK, Lord Jonathan Oates, UK House of Lords, Member of the House of Lords and Stephen Boucher, Founder of Dreamocracy, Visiting Professor at Sciences Po, ULB and CIFE
  14. Hearing the marginalized: The jan sunwai in India India, Dr. Stéphanie Tawa Lama, Centre d’Etudes de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud (CNRS-EHESS), Research Director
  15. Creating collaborative young communities through school participatory budgetingCzech Republic, Ankitha Cheerakathil, Institute H21-India, Executive Director
  16. Dreaming, remembering, scaling, and innovating boldly: How a small French town initiated a journey towards “Zero unemployment”France, Stephen Boucher, Founder of Dreamocracy, Visiting Professor at Sciences Po, ULB and CIFE
  17. Public challenges to kindle innovation: How one telegram forever changed public policy in Australiacity of Playford, Australia, Luis Lafosse, Designer in public sector, Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Board member. 
  18. Creating a “voice” of collective change through simple mobile phonesIndia, Dr. Aaditeshwar Seth, Gram Vaani and Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
  19. Collective intelligence and digital participatory platforms: Learnings from Barcelona’s DECIDIMSpain, David Leal Garcia, Innovation in Politics Institute, Country Representative in Spain, Dr. Antonio Calleja-Lopez, Communication Networks and Social Change Group at the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute of the Open University of Catalonia, Technopolitics research unit Collaborator and Dr. Juan Linares-Lanzman, DigiDoc Research Group, Collaborator
  20. Smarter mediation, better dialogue: Lessons from a Swedish protest for local healthcareSweden, Bernard Le Roux, Association Dialogues, Co-founder, partnership with the Swedish Association for Municipalities and Regions
  21. Conflict resolution and community change: “An eagle watches over us” USA, David Baum, Author and consultant, School of Collective Intelligence, Université Mohammed VI Polytechnique, Guest Lecturer
  22. To transform the community, change the story: The Fab City Global InitiativeColumbus, Ohio, USA, Mary-Alice Arthur, Get Soaring, Story activist
  23. Scaling personal initiatives into collective action: The citizen powerhouse of Sager der Samler in Aarhus, DenmarkPaul Natorp, Sager der Samler, Co-founder, OECD Innovative Citizen Participation Network, Member.
  24. Pioneering Asia Pacific’s first community-driven investment process through blockchain: Impact CollectivePakistan and Korea, Charlotte Arribe, Impact Manager, Stephanie Arrowsmith, Expert Lead, Songyi Lee, Venture Partner and Eunielle Yi, Lead Tech Provider, Impact Collective. 
  25. Unlocking the collaborative potential of national parliaments: The Open European DialogueEU, Verena Ringler, European Commons, Director and Chiara Rosselli, Open European Dialogue, Director
  26. Crowd forecasting infectious disease outbreaksDr. Emile Servan-Schreiber, Cognitive psychologist, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University School of Collective Intelligence founding member and affiliate professor and Camille Larmanou, Hypermind
  27. Mobilizing collective intelligence and diversity towards Sustainable Development Goals: From global innovation labs to collective intelligence assemblies for sustainable development Catherine Jacquet, Unleash Innovation Lab, Facilitator and Dr. Mamello Thinyane, United Nations University Institute in Macau, Principal Research Fellow
  28. Bridging science and diplomacy to build a universal agreement on the science of climate change: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeKari de Pryck, Swiss National Science Foundation, Postdoctoral fellow
  29. Nurturing the right context for fruitful dialogue: The case of Helmut Kohl’s “gastrosophy” Germany, Dr. Knut Bergmann, Cologne Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, Head of Communication
  30. Thinking ahead collectively: The case of African Digital FuturesPassy Amayo Ogolla, School of International Futures, Society for International Development, Program Manager and Julie Anne Jenson, The Generation Poetry Project, Co-director
  31. Smarter crowdsourcing to tackle COVID-19: Beyond the open call Anirudh Dinesh, The Governance Lab and Burnes Center for Social Change at Northeastern University, Research Fellow
  32. Mobilizing collective intelligence for adapting to climate change in the Arctic: The case of monitoring Svalbard’s and Greenland’s environment by expedition cruisesGreenland and Svalbard, Dr. Gitte Kragh, Aarhus University, Postdoc Researcher, Co-Founder, Citizen Science Netværket, Co-Founder, Michael K. Poulsen, Lisbeth Iversen, Ted Cheeseman and Finn Danielsen, Aarhus University
  33. Using collective intelligence to assess the future with the Pandemic SupermindChile, Annalyn Bachmann, MIT Horizon, Senior Product Manager, Adriana König, Munich School of Management Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Research and Teaching assistant and PhD candidate, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, Research collaborator, Robert Laubacher, MIT Sloan School of Management, Center for Collective Intelligence, Associate Director and David Kong, MIT Media Lab’s Community Biotechnology Initiative, Director
  34. Using political bots and artificial intelligence to facilitate the interaction between citizens and lawmakersBrazil, Cristiano Ferri Soares de Faria, Center of Collective Intelligence Research Affiliate, Parliament, Brazil, MIT Researcher and Innovation Manager, Hans Bredow Institut, Postdoc-Kolleg “Algorithmed Public Spheres”
  35. Turning organizations into innovation ecosystems: The Hexagon of Public Innovation modelSpain, Raúl Oliván, LAAAB (Aragon Open Government Lab), Open Government and Social Innovation, Director General
  36. Co-initiating, sensing, presencing, creating, and Shaping: How the Scottish government applied Theory U for collective leadership against COVID-19 – UK, Scotland, Keira Oliver, Scottish Government, Researcher and Karen Lawson, Collective Leadership for Scotland Team in the Scottish government, Collaborative Learning Lead

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